Low Cost Sensing Techniques of Industrial Process Variables ab 79 € als Taschenbuch: Low Cost Sensing Technology. Aus dem Bereich: Bücher, Wissenschaft, Technik,
Low Cost Sensing Techniques of Industrial Process Variables ab 79 EURO Low Cost Sensing Technology
An attempt was made for the first time to investigate and optimize ultrasound-assisted solid-liquid extraction (USLE) of phenolic compounds from spent coffee grounds (low-cost source of valuable phenolic compounds) using three levels, four factors (ultrasonic power, extraction temperature, extraction time and solid-liquid ratio) Box-Behnken response surface design (BBD). From the results, mathematical models were developed to illustrate the effects of process variables and their interactions on the extraction yield of phenolic compounds. The optimum process conditions were found to be: ultrasonic power of 410 W, ultrasonic temperature of 49°C, extraction time of 26 min and solid-liquid ratio of 1:30 g/ml. Under the optimal conditions, the experimental values agreed with predicted values within 95% confidence level, thus indicating the suitability of BBD in optimizing the USLE of phenolic compounds from spent coffee grounds.
Utilization of biological waste in treatment of industrial effluents is an emerging field of research. In present context of waste management, bio-adsorbent based techniques are well-known as an eco-friendly approach, for cleaning up various industrial effluents. The efficiency of water hyacinth, as low cost bio-adsorbent has been investigated for removal of lead ions from aqueous solution. Equilibrium behavior of this adsorbent was investigated by performing batch adsorption experiments to study the effect of the major parameters such as contact time, initial concentration of metal ion and adsorbent dose, etc. Response surface methodology was applied to predict the optimal condition of lead ion removal. The correlation of the operating variables and the response based on face centered central composite design are fitted to quadratic polynomial equation. The quadratic term of initial metal ion concentration showed significant influence on the extent of removal. This work showed the potential of the water hyacinth as bio-adsorbent for removal of lead ions from paint industry effluent.
Plastic injection molding process is well known as the manufacturing process to create products with various shapes and complex geometry at low cost. The injection molding cycle consists of several stages, such as filling, packing, and cooling. The cooling system design is of considerable importance since about 80% of the cycle time is taken up by the cooling phase. In this book, injection mold of a complicated plastic part with undercuts is designed by providing the Sliders in the mold and cycle time is reduced by optimizing cooling time. In this book, different variables included: size, location and layout of cooling channels, temperature and flow rate of the coolant and the effect of different types of plastic materials on cooling time are analyzed analytically and through software analysis to optimize the cooling time.
This book is a Monograph, a collection of a few scholarly articles of original research work adopted from author s 1st part of the doctoral dissertation related to development of Low Cost Sensing Technology of Industrial Process variables with simple design and easily available material. The Chapter-1 enriched with brief review of R&D of various workers is a comprehensive appraisal of various process sensors & transmitter in the field of liquid level, Flow, pressure and temperature measurement. The Chapter-2 is composed of all scholarly articles regarding theory of developed sensing technique, design and fabrication of the sensor, experimental evaluation of the performance of the developed sensor with experimental data. Finally, the author describes the contribution of the research output, pros and cons of the development and possibility of future direction of work for each research item as mentioned in this book.The graduate and post graduate university students and research workers studying in this field will get benefit from this book by sharing knowledge in developing low cost sensing technique of industrial process variables.
The oral mucosal route of drug delivery has attracted the attention worldwide for optimizing the drug delivery because of ease of accessibility, patient compliance and robust nature of oral mucosa. The aim of the present study was to design unidirectional, bilayered, mucoadhesive tablets for diclofenac sodium using natural polysaccharides from Tamarindus indica and Prunus amygdalus, since the natural polymers offer advantages like low cost, non toxicity and biocompatibility over synthetic polymers. The selected drug has variable bioavailability due to extensive first pass metabolism, which makes it an ideal candidate for buccal delivery. The selected hydrogels were isolated, purified and characterized for various physicochemical properties which indicated that the polymer may sustain the drug release. Further, in the formulation of mucoadhesive tablets, various process and formulation variables such as compression force, compression time, drug-polymer ratio and penetration enhancer concentration were studied and optimized on the basis of their effect on physical properties of tablets, in vitro dissolution and mucoadhesive strength.
These days active magnetic bearings are mostly used in large drives or special fields like vacuum or clean room technology. For the displacement detection of magnetically levitated rotors in high speed drives different types of sensor technologies are currently used. According to the respective operating conditions not each of these measuring systems is suitable. The static and dynamic transmission properties essentially define the performance of the magnetic bearing system. In spite of the variety of sensor principles their costs are very high comparing to all other system components, especially in smaller drive units.In this thesis a novel magnetic displacement sensor is presented, which fulfils the high requirements of measuring and control technology and is furthermore simple, robust and low-cost. The working principle is based on compensating current transformers and the sensor combines a direct measuring of displacement and whose velocity in one unit. By gathering both of these state space variables it is possible to realize a simply structured and observerless state space controller.Theoretic preliminary considerations by means of analytical and numerical calcula-tions validate the general functionality for magnetic bearing applications. The result of the simulations and optimizations was realized in a heteropolar arranged prototype for radial displacement measuring. For the determination of the static and dynamic transmission properties several tests and measurements were carried out. To improve the linearity and reduce the temperature dependence as well as interferences each two sensors per measuring axis are shifted in differential mode. At higher signal frequencies the eddy current losses in the measuring track are increasing like it can be observed at the well known inductive measuring principles. The cut-off frequency of the magnetic measuring system is therefore mainly limited by the magnetic properties of the measuring track material. In a second development step a homopolar arranged sensor was built up, which is now scalable for different shaft diameter. In combination with an incremental ferromagnetic measuring trace it is possible to detect the angle position as well as the rotational speed of drives.Finally, in the end of the work, a displacement control of an active, radial magnetic bearing with magnetic distance sensors was realized. Different kind of controllers were tested and compared with a classic PID controller. The direct measuring of the radial velocity offers the advantage of a noise- and lag-free signal which replaces the D-part of the controller. The state space controller with complete state space variables measurement shows significant improvements concerning the command variable and also the disturbance variable behaviour.In summary it can be stated, that the magnetic displacement sensor is suitable for active magnetic bearings as well as for mechatronical applications like monitoring and failure diagnostic in electrical machines. Furthermore it is to be expected due to the cost reduction of the measuring system, that the acceptance of magnetic bearings in drive technology can be enhanced.
Gas metal arc welding of new generation modified ferritic stainless steel (FSS) and low nickel austenitic stainless steel (LNiASS) possess challenges to the fabrication industries in terms of cost-effectiveness, quality and performance due to the lack of standardization. The use of an improper combination of process variables like mode of metal transfer, filler material, and shielding gas mixture, often limited the application of these highly potential alloys and increases the fabrication cost. This book is an effort to develop a cost-effective GMAW methodology to achieve high quality welded joints. Three different modes of metal transfer, three different filler materials, and four different shielding gas compositions are studied to obtain the cost-effective combination of GMAW process variables. Several characterization tools and methods are used to realize the performance of various welded joints. This book shows the way to attain cost-effective method to weld modified FSS and LNiASS without deteriorating performance.