With the rapid advancement of Concrete Technology, High Performance Concrete (HPC) is being more widely used in reinforced concrete structures. High Performance Concrete is defined as concrete that meets special performance and uniformity requirements that cannot always be achieved routinely by using conventional materials and normal mixing, placing and curing practices. HPC includes two major properties, high compressive strength and low permeability. Recently, there has been a growing interest in the use of high-performance fiber-reinforced concrete (HPFRC) for concrete structural elements.Fiber Reinforced Concretes (FRC) have mostly been used in non-structural applications such as slabs-on-grade, floors and architectural concrete and typically less than 1% by volume of fibers are used. It is often prohibitive for reasons of cost as well as in order to ensure acceptable workability and homogeneity to include larger contents of fibers, but it has been tried with success in a few cases, and in these cases other properties besides ductility can be improved as well. The high fiber contents have even been used in connection with considerable main reinforcement - SIFCON.
The use of Palm Kernel Shells (PKS) as coarse aggregate in concrete has continuously received increasing attention among researchers, especially in Africa, in the last three decades. This is primarily due to its environmental and economic benefits. However, while considerable amount of research has been carried out to assist in understanding its concrete mix designs and associated mechanical properties, a limited amount of works have been carried out to assist in the current understanding with respect to its shear resistance. This book provide in-depth insight into the shear strength properties of PKS reinforced concrete beams and two-way slabs to assist designers and contractors in the use of PKS aggregates for structural application. This book further provided information on the adequacy or otherwise of the design provisions in the BS 8110, ACI 318 and EC 2 in predicting the shear capacity of PKS concrete beams with and without shear reinforcement. This book will serve as a major source of reference to Engineering students, Civil Engineers and Contractors in the countries where Palm Kernel Shells are produced for concrete production to achieve a low cost construction.
Structural elements such as beams, slabs and columns may require strengthening during their service life period. The need for strengthening may arise due to one or a combination of several factors including construction or design defects, increased load carrying demands, change in use of structure, seismic upgrade, or meeting new code requirements. Studies have shown that Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) composites, in the form of sheets, have emerged as a viable, cost-effective alternative to steel plates or other techniques in strengthening RC members. The principal advantages of FRP sheets over steel plates include high strength-to-weight ratio, corrosion resistance and flexibility in its use. Another significant advantage of this repair technique is that overall repair cost in terms of labor, material and equipment is low and can offset the high material cost. However, the long-term durability and performance of FRP sheet strengthened RC members is a concern in civil engineering community. This work study involves experimental and theoretical investigations of the behavior of flexural debonding carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) laminates with steel anchorages.