An attempt was made for the first time to investigate and optimize ultrasound-assisted solid-liquid extraction (USLE) of phenolic compounds from spent coffee grounds (low-cost source of valuable phenolic compounds) using three levels, four factors (ultrasonic power, extraction temperature, extraction time and solid-liquid ratio) Box-Behnken response surface design (BBD). From the results, mathematical models were developed to illustrate the effects of process variables and their interactions on the extraction yield of phenolic compounds. The optimum process conditions were found to be: ultrasonic power of 410 W, ultrasonic temperature of 49°C, extraction time of 26 min and solid-liquid ratio of 1:30 g/ml. Under the optimal conditions, the experimental values agreed with predicted values within 95% confidence level, thus indicating the suitability of BBD in optimizing the USLE of phenolic compounds from spent coffee grounds.
Wine production generates a huge amount of waste which is considered as unbeneficial and potentially causes environment problems. However, due to the advance technology, minimization of waste production in several wine industries has drawn attention to many. Winery wastes are regarded as a low-cost source of antioxidant and phenolic compounds. Therefore, this specific study aimed to develop the optimal extraction conditions for antioxidant activity and total phenolic content using this solvent concentration. These compounds can be used as food preservatives and natural colourants in food industries.
Various biomolecules like carbohydrates and proteins, fibers and minerals are found in these agro-wastes. These are compounds of industrial engrossment. Due to this richness in composition, one can find a large scope both from economic and environmental aspects if these wastes are reutilized. The economical aspect is based on the fact that such wastes may be used as low-cost raw materials for the production of bioethanol, finally reduces the production costs. Because most of the agro-industrial wastes also contain phenolic compounds of toxic prospective, which may cause downturn of the environment if discharged to the nature, it is but natural that an environmental concern is also associated with it. Taking all the above aspects into consideration, the aim of the study is, To develop an economical and environment friendly bioprocesses to produce bioethanol from lignocellulosic waste materials like wheat straw, bagasse, peels of Litchi chinensis, Citrus sinensis var mosambi and Ananas cosmosus. To achieve the above aim, experiments were scientifically designed using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) for developing, improving, and optimizing the ethanol yield.
Since plant derived bioactive compounds have been attributed a variety of health-promoting effects, the extraction of these compounds from plant material has become an important industrial process. Nowadays, green extraction process such as subcritical water extraction, which provides higher selectivities, low cost and shorter extraction times, is very popular. Pressurized liquid extractor (PLE, Dionex trade name accelerated solvent extractor-ASE) technology has also been used for subcritical water extraction of bioactive compounds from various plant materials as well as laboratory-built apparatus. Flaxseed is the richest source of secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) lignan and also other phenolics which have phytoestrogenic, anticarcinogenic, antioxidative and cardioprotective effects. This book, therefore, includes extraction of phenolic compounds from flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) meal sticks with subcritical water using ASE. Also, useful informations about ASE and validation study of SDG lignan analysis in HPLC-MS/MS are illustrated in this book.
Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online. Raspberry ketone is a natural phenolic compound that is the primary aroma compound of red raspberries. It is used in perfumery, in cosmetics, and as a food additive to impart a fruity odor. It is one of the most expensive flavor components used in the food industry. The natural compound can cost as much as $20,000 per kg. In 1965 FDA placed raspberry ketone on "GRAS" (generally regarded as safe) status. In plants, raspberry ketone is synthesized from coumaroyl-CoA. But since the natural abundance of raspberry ketone is very low, it is prepared industrially by a variety of methods from chemical intermediates. Extraction of pure raspberry ketone is usually 1-4 mg/kg raspberries.
Waste from various industries contains numerous aromatic compounds that are carcinogenic in nature and have harmful impact on human health. Currently, several procedures are being used for removal of phenol (an aromatic compound) from industrial wastewater. Among these, application of enzymatic catalysis has the potential to substitute conventional methods of waste treatment. On other hand, TURNIP (Brassica napis) is widely cultivated as vegetable in different part of the world and cost effective because of its low-priced and readily availability. Turnip s peroxidase content derived from its extract was evaluated for removal of phenolic content present in tannery wastewater. Along with cost effectiveness and greater activity, crude TURNIP extract (comprising peroxidase) is an environment friendly approach to remove phenolic contents from polluted water. This book deals with each aspect of wastewater/ tannery effluent treatment through turnip extract (turnip peroxidases) to remove the phenolic contents. Moreover, this book also comprises methodology to maximize the activity of peroxidases for utmost elimination of phenolic contaminants.
Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) are the most promising power sources for various portable electronic devices that operate at low temperature in between 70-80°C. Bipolar plate, an important component of PEMFC contributes nearly 80% weight of the total weight of fuel cell and 50% of the total cost of fuel cell stack. Worldwide efforts are going on to develop strong and thin bipolar plate. This book described the development of Low Density and Low Cost Expanded Graphite (EG) Based Composite Bipolar Plate for PEMFC. (EG) synthesized from different flake size of natural graphite using chemical oxidation and thermal treatment has loose structure and porous behavior which endows high surface area. The composites bipolar plates are developed from EG and phenolic resin in different wt. percentages ratio. The composites with EG ranges from 40-50 wt. % are suitable for achieving the desired electrical and mechanical properties of PEMFC
The past fifteen years have witnessed a tremendous interest in the search for alternative to fossil origin materials. The search has been motivated by the realisation that fossil reserves are finite, and their use poses serious environmental impact. The search for the alternative non fossil origin materials has resulted in the exploitation of plant-based materials which offer potentially zero greenhouse gas emissions. Cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) is phenolic based natural oil extracted from cashew nut processing plants. The oil consist of four monomeric components each differing in side chain saturation. Polymerisation of the crude CNSL is accomplished in two stages resulting in either resol or novolak type resins. CNSL can be polymerised in acidic and alkaline media to produce neat cast components or mixed with plant fibres to produce composites that exhibit properties similar to those of fossil-based polymers reinforced with glass fibres. The development of plant resourced materials into industrial products can contribute to a healthy ecosystem while their low cost and high performance fulfils the economic interest of industries.
Current statistics of Diabetes Atlas of International Diabetes Federation, states 285 million among the world population suffer from Diabetes mellitus. It is a non-communicable disease and oxidative stress due to the rapid formation of free radicals and protein glycation are the key molecular basis of macro and micro complications of diabetes mellitus. There is a global clamor to use herbal treatments in Diabetes mellitus due to the minimal adverse effects, safety and low cost., but very few scientific investigations have been carried out to prove the efficacy of using these herbal plants in the treatment of Diabetes mellitus. This study covers five medicinal plants commonly used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus by gathering information from the traditional and Ayurveda medical practitioners and their antiglycation,antioxidant potentias and phenolic contents. The selected herbal plant parts are Cassia auriculata flowers, Osbakia octandra leaves, Syzygium cumini bark, Phyllanthus emblica fruits and Scoparia dulcis whole plant. These are administrated as decoctions of poly herbal formulations and as individual plants, prepared according to the Ayurveda pharmacopeia.