High Quality Content by WIKIPEDIA articles! The Lada Kalina is a low cost supermini car sold under the Lada marque and produced by the Russian automaker AvtoVAZ. Its mass production began in November 2004, but it became available for purchase almost a year later. The three models developed are: Lada 1117 5-door station wagon (production began in 2007/2008), Lada 1118 4-door sedan (full production began in 2005/2006), Lada 1119 5-door hatchback (full production began in 2006). There are two gasoline engines, with 81 and 91 hp (60 and 68 kW). The new Kalina will be exported to Western Europe with a price of about 7000, it will be submitted to EuroNCAP safety tests. It will have ABS, electric power steering and rear seats that can be folded so that a horizontal platform is formed. Its name is Kalina in other countries, but in Finland it will be marketed as Lada 119, because "kalina" means "rattle" in Finnish. It is not sold in certain markets.
This thesis deals with small horizontal axis free-flow turbines for harnessing the kinetic energy of marine currents driven by the tidal cycle. The overall objective of this work is the development of innovative optimal rotor geometries for these small horizontal axis turbines which feature a) the maximum annual energy production at a given site of deployment, b) a minimum axial thrust in order to reduce cost for foundation at the seabed or for mooring of a floating platform, and c) a minimum sensitivity to cavitation for a low immersion depth in case of floating platform systems.Within this thesis, a novel turbine design method, tailor-made for small horizontal axis turbines, is developed. Key feature is the integration of an enhanced semi-analytic blade-element-momentum method and a cavitation inception model into a multi-objective optimization scheme. Control strategies for fixed- und variable-pitch turbines are included. For four generic classes of tidal current velocity distributions, representing potential tidal current resources of different energy levels, fixed- und variable-pitch turbines are designed. The predicted annual energy production of the optimized fixed-pitch turbine is between 22% and 27% above a classical design. The optimized variable-pitch versions promise even larger improvements. The new design method has been validated successfully within comprehensive model scale turbine tests in a towing tank and cavitation tunnel. Moreover, in several months' full-scale tests in a real tidal current, the predicted power and thrust characteristics of a selected close-to-production turbine was confirmed.
The analysis of how to design policies to promote backward linkages would not be complete without introducing sound discovery into the debate. Foreign investors would naturally prefer to avoid creating rivals to their market position, aiming at horizontal positioning. But workers and managers often leave foreign plants to start up their own, local firms learn from watching the operations of foreigners. In the vertical direction, in contrast, foreign investors often have self-interest in creating low-cost reliable-quality suppliers in the host market. The outcome depends, however, on the structure and character of the industry involved.
New measurement tools and software systems have been introduced in an effort to provide accurate and cost-effective data by addressing a variety of parameters, which include thin-bed evaluation, low-resistivity pay zone analysis, productivity/permeability prediction, horizontal well evaluation, fractured reservoir analysis, reservoir interpretation and reservoir characterization. Image logs are widely used in oil industry and become a key element for the detection of fracture location, orientation, fracture types, fracture density, and cluster distribution of parameters. However, accurate interpretation of fractures depends on good image quality. Poor image causes not only poor interpretation, but also misleading results from further geological modeling, reservoir simulation and reservoir characterization. Ch.1 is introduction to imaging. Ch. 2 micro-resistivity tools and images are discussed. Ch. 3 contains acoustic images, image processing and image interpretation. In Ch. 4 image artifacts are discussed in more details. In Ch. 5 operational corrections and environmental corrections algorithms are discussed in more details. Ch. 6 introduces interpretations of field case studies.
For the partitions of the building one cannot ignore bricks due to its lesser cost and flexible use. These walls are subjected to lateral loads induced by wind and inertia load produced by horizontal ground motions during an earthquake. An alternate to reinforced cement concrete water tank is a brick wall water tank, a permanent fixture of every residential house due to negligible water supply from municipal corporation. As a solution to this practical problem an effort has been made to investigate the effect of bond on the strength of brick wall subjected to lateral load. Wall panels have been constructed using English & Flemish bond. On the application of lateral load upto ultimate state the experimental study reveals some good results. Load deflection response indicates a linear relationship upto first crack load. Wall behaves elastically upto first crack, and on further increase in load due to the difference in stiffness of masonry unit and mortar (low tensile bond strength) the crack propagated and at ultimate state crushing took place followed by large central deflections.
Millions of people worldwide are in urgent need of affordable houses. According to the statistics, these people are mainly living in developing countries with a relatively high level of seismic risk and low to medium incomes. While traditional practices are unable to cope with currently high demands, large number of fatalities and wide spread damages during last earthquakes show that houses in many regions of the world are seismically vulnerable. This work aims at developing a simple and low-cost solution, inspired by good performance of traditional low-rise structures in Germany, known as "Fachwerkhaus". Therefore, the main parameters of this good performance are realized and adopted for the recommended solution, called systematically braced frames. To assure a high quality, an off-site prefabrication of main safety-relevant structural elements under strict supervision is supported here, while the rest of the structure can be accomplished by local labor, to generate local jobs, and using available materials, to provide cultural acceptance and to minimize costs. As required for the seismic study, horizontal stiffness and ductility are investigated analytically during the work.
Die Kaufentscheidung eines Konsumenten hängt neben ökonomischen und ökologischen Faktoren stark von produktspezifischen Eigenschaften wie Sensorik, Textur und Farbe ab. Trotz zahlreicher Verbesserungen in den vergangenen Jahren bleibt das Problem der Stabilität über die Lagerung von Fruchtsäften, Fruchtmarks, -pürees, Konfitüren, Fruchtzubereitungen und "Smoothies" bestehen. Darum greifen Hersteller häufig auf synthetische Farbstoffe zurück. In Studien konnten kausale Zusammenhänge über den Verzehr synthetischer Farbstoffe und der Hyperaktivität von Kleinkindern nicht ausgeschlossen werden. Seit dem 20. Juli 2010 besteht in der Europäischen Union für Lebensmittel, welche die Azofarbstoffe Tatrazin, Gelborange S, Azorubin, Allurarot oder Chochenillerot A enthalten, eine Kennzeichnungspflicht mit gesondertem Warnhinweis. Diese Umstände führen zu zunehmender Ablehnung dieser Produkte durch den Konsumenten.Dirk Hofmann untersucht für flüssige und pastöse Fruchtprodukte aus Brombeeren, Erdbeeren, Sauerkirschen und roten Trauben umfassend, ob Anthocyane als natürliche Lebensmittelfarbstoffe mit zahlreichen gesundheitsfördernden Eigenschaften ausreichendes Potential für die Herstellung von Produkten mit möglichst hohem Pigmentanteil und hoher Pigmentstabilität bieten.Er widmet sich dabei zunächst Risiken und Chancen moderner Verarbeitungstechnologie und geht dabei auch auf den Einfluss der Enzymierung während der Verarbeitung ein.Nach ausführlicher chemischer und sensorischer Analyse der Produktqualität am Ende der Herstellung, sowie im Zuge einer Lagerung von mehreren Monaten bei drei unterschiedlichen Temperaturen unter Lichtausschluss, werden dabei entstehende Alterungspigmente charakterisiert und, soweit möglich, identifiziert.Durch intelligenten Einsatz verschiedener analytischer Verfahren konnte er Wechselwirkungen zwischen kolloidalen Saftbestandteilen und Anthocyanen nachweisen und charakterisieren.Die erzielten Ergebnisse leisten einen Beitrag zur Herstellung qualitativ hochwertiger, farbstabiler Buntsäfte und Fruchtpürees mit Zusatznutzen.The aim of this thesis was the optimization of the processing of red fruits to products with high pigment concentration and colour stability. The influence of enzymatic treatments during processing steps, as well as the influence of the processing itself on storage stability should be characterized. Pigments created during storage should also be characterized and - if possible - identified. Furthermore, possible interactions of anthocyanins and hydrocolloids of fruit juices and the kind of interaction was attempted to be characterized. The influence of the temperature during enzymatic treatment on the later product quality of strawberry puree was examined in an experiment at laboratory scale. Results showed that the influence of natural fruit enzymes at room temperature is sufficient to create an appealing, flawless product.A comparison of the processing of strawberries to juice in the years 2009 and 2010 showed comparable ageing of the obtained juices of the varieties 'Korona' and 'Senga Sengana'. The processing by the use of decanter technology in 2010 resulted in a high pigment loss compared to the use of a horizontal Bucher press in 2009. The obsolescence rates of strawberry puree of both years were well comparable.Characterization and identification of ageing pigments was performed through creation of phenolic extracts from fruit juices stored at different temperatures. By comparison with literature data, already known ageing pigments were identified.The sugars and sugar acids composition of hydrocolloids isolated from fresh and stored juices was determined in order to characterize potential interactions of anthocyanins and hydrocolloidal substances. Additionally, the metal composition of the colloids was analyzed. The distribution of monosaccharides allowed the identification of the different fruit species, as well as to draw conclusions from the composition of fragments of pectin. Changes in the metal composition bound to colloids during storage were observed and the composition itself allowed the differentiation of the colloids.The direct analysis of anthocyanins in hydrocolloids led to detection of fruit specific anthocyanins. As a result, these genuine anthocyanins may be bound as a kind of weak interaction, possibly van-der-Waals forces. Also, some kind of self-microencapsulation of anthocyanins with the long chains of pectin could be possible. Results showed that these interactions did not increase colour stability in red fruit juices. The use of fruit juice colloids for colour stabilization in strawberry juice led to colour loss compared to the untreated juice. The interactions were observed in different molecular weight classes.Characterisation of high molecular fractions isolated from blackberry and strawberry colloids showed red pigments, but these pigments could not be identified. The detected concentrations showed that the major part of the anthocyanins was found to be bound to molecules with an average molecular weight below 10.000 Dalton.The results of this work can be used as a basis for further investigations. Unidentified ageing pigments could possibly be identified, as well as combinations of anthocyanins and low molecular weight polymeric substances including the type of interaction. The findings in processing technology could be useful in the fruit juice industry to create high value products with desirable colour and colour stability by efficient processes at low cost.
Radar Systems are quite expensive for tracking mobile targets requiring high precision. In addition, if the target is experiencing high dynamics, there can be substantial uncertainties relating to the tracking capabilities and positioning accuracies. As a cost effective alternative, C/A based GPS receiver can be integrated into the target for tracking and positioning. However, integrating such a low cost C/A GPS receiver into a high dynamic target like the sounding rockets can be challenging. This book gives an in depth analysis into integrating a C/A GPS receiver into sounding rockets. The book starts with a background in C/A GPS technology and sounding rockets. Then it reviews theoretical aspects relating to PLL, DLL, GPS, DGPS, atmospheric models and extended Kalman filter. Next, tracking capabilities of the loops and the changes required are specified. Positional accuracies both in vertical and horizontal directions are simulated by using trajectories from two different rockets (Minidusty and bb12).This guide should be very helpful for the graduate students, practicing electronic engineers, researcher and anyone interested in integrating GPS into high dynamic environment.
Pollutant transport mechanisms and parameters in constructed subsurface flow wetlands. In recent years, there has been an increasing trend towards the application of constructed wetland wastewater treatment as a decentralized wastewater management solution. Small scale approaches for domestic wastewater treatment offer alternatives that adapt the different sustainability considerations including low cost design installation, operation and maintenance. The design of a constructed wetland should be not only environmentally sound but also economical. The research purpose is to gain an insight into its internal working with focus on the hydraulic regime. To achieve a better understanding of pollutant transport mechanisms and parameters in a sand bed, a physical horizontal sand column model and an experimental constructed subsurface flow wetland were developed. These studies provide new insights on the inner functioning of the constructed wetland and allowed to make recommendation for a constructed subsurface flow wetland design in the Mekong Delta.