The Bt (Bacillus Thuringiensis) cotton seed production focussed on the socio-economic characteristics of contract farmers, cost and return, efficiency of resource use and problems faced by the farmers in Bt cotton seed production under different companies. The total cost of Bt cotton seed production varied from one company contract farmers to other company contract farmers. The Cobb-Douglas production function revealed that the farmers who have contracted with different seed companies, the use of seed was found to be optimum across all company contract farmers. Whereas, fertilizer resource was over utilized by farmers who have contracted with various companies. Non availability of trained labour and prevalence of high wage rate were the major constraints in case of production, where as poor technical assistance and low contract price were the contractual problems. Therefore the Bt cotton seed production technology had positive impact on Socio- economic status of farmers by increase in yield and reducing cost on inputs thereby increase in income and also standard of living.
Gossypium arboreum species of cotton is most widely distributed in the country. It has stress tolerance & grown on varied type of soils. The requirement of arboreum species for plant protection is less compared to hirsutum species. The structure of leaves of arboreum species are genetically modified to develop moisture and pest tolerance compared to hirsutum. The cost of seed of hirsutum hybrids & pesticides are higher which make heavy burdon on cultivators. The hirsutum hybrids are more susceptible to moisture stress. Under such situation arboreum species are known for stress tolerance. But their yield potential are comparatively low. The present arboreum species are mostly indeterminate in habit, their plant phenology make it difficult for management including cotton picking. The hybrids have higher yield potential & may produce different phenology which permit better management including cotton picking. Recently some private companies have developed arboreum hybrids but its phenological requirement & nutrient particularly nitrogen is the present need to increase productivity and sustainability of cotton. The details regrading this are given in detail in this book.
Fossil fuels are getting exhausted very fast and their replenishment is limited. So the search for alternate energy is of prime importance to the world in general and oil deficient developing countries in particular. Biomass based renewable crop residues like cotton stalk is one such option. Cotton stalk can be gasified in a downdraft gasifier. The producer gas from the gasifier can be used for thermal applications or the gas after cleaning in a gas conditioning unit can be used to run a diesel engine-alternator assembly to produce electricity. Diesel replacement of the order of 61% is attainable. The cost of power generation from the cotton stalk in dual fuel mode is less than that in diesel alone mode at all brake loads except at very low load(20%). The maximum savings occur at 80% of the full load.
The use of natural fibre-reinforced polymer composite (NFPMC) is increasing day by day in industries and fundamental research because they are renewable, cheap, completely or partially recyclable and biodegradable. Plants, such as flax, cotton, hemp, jute, sisal, kenaf, pineapple, ramie, bamboo, banana, bagasse etc., as well as wood are used as a source of lignocelluloses fibres and applied as reinforcement in composites. NFPMC consists of reinforced natural fibre in polymer matrix and posses wide engineering applications due to their low cost, ease of fabrication, adequate mechanical properties and dimensional stability. NFPMCs can replace plastic parts in number of applications, viz. wash basins, bathtubs, sinks, shower cabins, washing racks, roof, halmet, pipes, tubes, automotive components etc. Extensive research has been undertaken with regard to fabrication and characterization of PMC containing natural fibres like jute, hemp, pineapple, bamboo and kenaf. The present book is focused on characterization of injection moulded sisal fibre reinforced recycled/virgin high density polyethylene composite with varying sisal content.
Copper nanoparticles have attracted a lot of interest in recent years due to their interesting properties, low cost preparation and many potential applications as catalysis, cooling fluid or conductive inks, and its biomedical property. Hydrothermal synthesis is considered to be a versatile approach for the synthesis of transition metals. Copper nanoparticles were synthesized through the hydrothermal method by the reduction of copper chloride with the surfactant SDS. Sodium dodecyl sulfate acts as a stabilizer. Hydrazine is also used as reducing agent. As prepared Copper nanoparticles were characterized by XRD (X-Ray Diffraction), TEM (Transmission electron microscopy), FESEM (Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy), PSA (Particle size analyzer) and UV/Vis (UV-Visible spectrometer). The resultant particles were confirmed to be pure Cu with a face-centered cubic (FCC) structure. Copper layered cotton fabric was prepared using dip coating method. The copper nanoparticles were homogenously coated on the cotton fabric and its antimicrobial activity was studied.
Malachite green is a basic dye for wool, silk and for mordanted cotton. It is also widely used to dye materials such as jute, leather, ceramics and paper, in addition to being used as a cytochemical staining agent and has, in fact, been widely used as the most efficacious antifungal agent in the fish farming industry Its worldwide use in aquaculture will probably continue due to its relatively low cost, ready availability, and efficacy, therefore, potential human exposure to malachite green could result from the consumption of treated fish and from working in the dye and aquaculture industries. In spite of these applications not much kinetic data have been reported in literature. Relevant data on the kinetics of its reaction, especially with oxidizing agents would give an insight into the conditions best suitable for its reactions and the mechanisms of these reactions. Data generated in kinetic studies, especially in collaboration with data from toxicological studies and experts in fish diseases could be of importance in improving its uses, as well as its handling when used as an antimicrobial agent, as biological stain and in the dyeing industry
High Quality Content by WIKIPEDIA articles! Sails have been made from cloth for all of recorded history. Typically sails were made from flax, hemp or cotton in various forms including canvas. However, modern sails are rarely made from natural fibers. Most sails are made from synthetic fibers ranging from low-cost nylon or polyester to expensive aramids or carbon fibers. Recent strides in technology now offer many options for the sailmaker. Doek is Dutch for cloth, which was evolved into the English word duck in reference to sail canvas. Duck was typically made from cotton or linen, with some use of hemp.
Methylene blue, a thiazine (cationic) dye, has been commonly used for dyeing of silk, leather, plastics, paper, cotton mordanted with tannin, and also in manufacturing of paints and printing inks. Although methylene blue is not hazardous compared to other commercial dyes, acute exposure to methylene blue can cause increased heart rate, vomiting, diarrhea, nausea and shock. Potential exposure to methylene blue can also cause hypertension, pre-cordial pain, dizziness, headache, fever, fecal discoloration, profuse sweating, mental confusion, ethemoglobinemia and hemolytic anemia. Hence, there is a necessity for the treatment of effluent containing such dye due to its harmful impacts on receiving waters. Amongst the numerous techniques of dye removal, adsorption is the procedure of choice owing to its low initial cost, high efficiency and ease of operation. A large number of adsorbents especially agricultural wastes have been investigated for their efficacy as adsorbents. A Natural Adsorbent - Sea Shell for Removal of Methylene Blue" describes the potential use of sea shell for the removal of methylene blue from aqueous systems.
Textile industry is growing on an enormous rate due to the capital demand of the product cotton, wool and synthetics. The waste water generated from different manufacturing processes in a point to treat because of its toxicity. This book focuses on the study of textile sludge management for the better sustainability. It also includes low cost treatment for textile sludge by using hyacinth (Eichhorniacrassipes) which partially absorbs heavy metals present from the sludge. extracted sludge along with cow dung can be utilized for bio gas production. Byproduct of bio gas treatment further utilized as organic fertilizer....!!!