Combining nanotechnology, electrochemistry and biological science together, innovative bio-sensors can be delivered with the advantages of small size, high sensitivity, rapid detection and low cost. This book covers the complete information from the template-synthesis of nanoscaled materials, to the fabrication of biosensors using those nanoscaled materials, and to the fast and sensitive electrochemical detections. Attention is then given to the theoretical analysis of the interaction between the nano-structured materials and the sensing agents using electrochemical and other characterization methods. Each chapter begins with an introduction and ends with a conclusion highlighting the key points. In addition, references at the end of the chapter help you expand your research on any individual topic. In summary, this book provides useful interdisciplinary information on the design, production and application of nano- structured electrochemical biosensors.
For some years now, biosensors have been an intense research field as they constitute advantageous alternatives to conventional analytical methods. The electrochemical enzyme based devices are of particular interest due to their sensitivity, selectivity, operational simplicity, low cost and quick response. Third generation biosensors that explore the direct electron transfer between electrodes and enzymes represent the most attractive and simple approach. This work reports the construction of electrochemical nitrite biosensors using cytochrome c nitrite reductase from a sulfate reducing bacterium. Nitrite is an important target analyte with markets in food industry, pollution control and clinical diagnostics. The potential use of the biosensors in real sample analysis, the enhancement of the electrocatalytic activity with carbon nanotubes and surfactants, the ability to protect the enzyme with polymer layers assuring biosensor long term stability, and the possibility to modulate the selectivity with specific matrices, were some of the issues addressed in this work. Overall they constitute important advances in nitrite biosensing with selective enzymes.
Over the last few years, biomedical engineering had a rapid progress on fabricating more precise and accurate biosensors, joining these results with a decrease in analysis costs. Electrochemiluminescence is a reliable and low-cost technique for the sensing of biomolecules, such as DNA and proteins. The scope of this book is to engineer this powerful method in order to design more sensitive biosensors. After an overview about the most common electrochemical techniques, the author presents a novel approach that involves carbon nanotubes to increase the sensitivity. This approach leads to a future miniaturization in order to build an integrated biosensor. This book could be useful to analyze thoroughly electrochemiluminescence aspects and to get new ideas for developing next generation biosensors.
Fiber optic - surface plasmon resonance (FO-SPR) instruments are powerful optical tools with great applicability in biosensing, mainly because they allow real-time quantification of biochemical interactions. Besides, they bring further advantages such as simplicity, portability and cost-effectiveness. These benefits came however with the price of a lower stability and sensitivity when compared to the bulky prism-based SPR platforms, motivating and fueling the general research framework captured in this book, i.e. to look for novel schemes of improving the innovative FO-SPR biosensing technology. In particular, this work connects technology-related elements with biochemical assays development, aiming the design of FO-SPR devices with improved performance and extended functionality, needed in the context of an increasing demand for low-cost, user-friendly and sensitive biosensors for various applications.
Making nanomaterials and steering structure build-up on the nanoscale requires different tools than those for shaping a workpiece. Electricity and electric fields have proven their suitability and merit in nanomaterial synthesis and as structural guides during the formation of nanostructures at sizes where mechanical guidance becomes difficult. In addition, nanomaterials have added a new dimension to electrochemistry with previously unknown possibilities for controlling and fine-tuning reaction parameters so as to yield the desired results. Providing the vital link between these two worlds, this reference and handbook covers advances in electrochemistry through the nanoscale control of electrode structures, as well as advances in nanotechnology through electrochemical synthesis strategies. It demonstrates how electrochemical methods are of great scientific and commercial interest due to their low cost and high efficiency, and includes the synthesis of nanowires, nanoparticles, nanoporous and layered nanomaterials of various compositions, as well as their applications -- ranging from superior electrode materials to energy storage, biosensors, and electroanalytical devices.
Agricultural and Food Electroanalysis offers a comprehensive rationale of electroanalysis, revealing its enormous potential in agricultural food analysis. A unique approach is used which fills a gap in the literature by bringing in applications to everyday problems. This timely text presents in-depth descriptions about different electrochemical techniques following their basic principles, instrumentation and main applications. Such techniques offer invaluable features such as inherent miniaturization, high sensitivity and selectivity, low cost, independence of sample turbidity, high compatibility with modern technologies such as microchips and biosensors, and the use of exciting nanomaterials such as nanoparticles, nanotubes and nanowires. Due to the advantages that modern electroanalytical techniques bring to food analysis, and the huge importance and emphasis given today to food quality and safety, this comprehensive work will be an essential read for professionals and researchers working in analytical laboratories and development departments, and a valuable guide for students studying for careers in food science, technology and chemistry.
In the medical, food, and environmental fields there is a continuous demand for inexpensive and sensitive analytical devices that are reliable, rapid, capable of high-throughput screening, and have low cost per test unit. Small and portable biosensor devices are designed to fulfill most of these requirements, and can be used in laboratory and on-site field testing. This volume discusses major issues in optical, acoustic and electrochemical-based biosensors, biochips, sensing recognition elements, and biosensors for medical and environmental applications. The papers presented at the conference represent basic and applied research studies in the fields of diagnostic assays and biosensor development. Novel technologies, such as arrays of sensors using high-density fiber optics to sense labeled or unlabeled oligonucleotides, and patterned arrays of recognition elements, demonstrated the capability of biosensors to analyze multiple analytes.