Biodiesel is the most important biofuel from both economical and technical points of view. Rice bran oil (RBO) with high free fatty acid (FFA) content offers important potential as an alternative low cost feedstock for biodiesel production. The main purpose of this book is to compare and optimize the amount of oil extracted from rice bran. Different parameters (solid particle size, solvent type, extraction time, solvent to solid ratio, and pH of extraction solution), were studied to determine the optimum conditions. These conditions were: particle size less than 600 m, temperature equal to 60°C for two hours extraction at pH 12.65, and solvent to solid ratio 5:1, using n hexane as solvent. However, the storage period under humidity 80% can effect on increasing the free fatty acid content which was reached to 79.2% after one month at the same optimum conditions. The acid catalysis esterification process using high FFA oil led to high conversion (99%) at short time (90 min). The mathematical model of esterification reaction was developed and the predicted results explained a fair matching with the experimental results.
In energy sector alarming crude oil situation compel us to think many alternative energy sources. Biomass is generated in huge mass but is varied nature and characteristics conversion efficiency is also relatively very low. Under the circumstance scientists have advocated the employ of plant energy. Out of these plants some of the selected plants like Jatropha have been tried with some degree of success. Although Simarouba is on trial stage yet its potential appears to be of massive utility to be used as biodiesel. As the topic of the book indicates the most important aspect associated is to under take critical analysis of such plant seed. This is through process of optimization which depends upon transesterification .Our results indicate that economic consideration compels us to undertake blending as a useful tool to reduce cost of application and usage as alternative fuel under different situations. The prime objective of this research is to highlight the application and potentiality of Simarouba. This analysis reinforces the convincing thought that plant energy is the alternative available as on data which can be controlled in terms of its production & utilization as Fuel
With the increasing stringency on sulfur content in petrodiesel, there is a growing tendency of broader usage of ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) with sulfur limit of 15 ppm. Refineries should develop cost- effective and sustainable strategies to meet the requirement. In addition to the conventional approach of revamping existing hydrotreating facilities, blending petrodiesel with biodiesel is a potentially attractive option. In this work, petrodiesel and biodiesel production processes were simulated. Next, process integration techniques were employed to optimize the processes, including both mass and heat integration. Cost estimation was carried out and optimization was performed for three blending options. In addition to the economic comparison, life-cycle greenhouse gas emission and safety issues were also investigated. This work should help shed some light on development of alternative sustainable resources and especially on the option of blending biodiesel. It should be useful to professionals in energy industry, and anyone else who are interested in process economics, environmental and safety aspects of petrodiesel and biodiesel production.
Over the years, a revolution in the Means of Transportation has exploded and developed from the Era of Camels and horses to the invention of the internal combustion Engine and the Diesel Engine, so there were a new source of energy was used which is Petroleum to run these engines, but in the Last 10 Years the cost of the Petroleum has increased rapidly by the Major Growth In the Universal population and the increase in the amount of moving cars per day, also there is A Major Problem that is facing the world this is the air pollution that is produced from the Crude oil Production and Ignition which evacuate Harmful gases as Carbon Dioxide and toxic As Carbon monoxide that affects human health, so a new Source of energy must substitute the Petro diesel which is Biodiesel which is clean, renewable fuel Biodegradable and non-toxic and Produce low emissions comparing with Petroleum Diesel which cause a lot of pollution.
Biodiesels are known as ecofriendly and biodegradable fuels. The unique properties in Biodiesel like high Cetane number and excess molecular oxygen helps the combustion complete with regulated emission. To mitigate the challenges of diesel engine exhaust emissions like NOx, HC, CO, CO2, PM and Smoke, biodiesel from different feed stocks of animal and plant oils are used. It has already proved experimentally that biodiesel can be used as an alternative fuel without changing the basic design of the existing engines. Despite of their advantages their practical application was limited to experimental stage this is due to the fact its high production cost. In this research an attempt was made to reduce the initial raw oil cost by utilizing the low cost feed stock of used cooking oil which was available at free of cost. In order to maximize the biodiesel yield advanced optimization techniques of Taguchi and Definitive screening design was adopted.
Tanzania depends exclusively on imports for its oil requirements. The country s dependency on oil imports has made it very vulnerable to increases in world oil prices and local oil demand. For instance, due to the increase in demand and prices the value of the country s oil imports rose from US$ 400.3 million in 2003 to US$ 1.1 billion in 2005. Therefore, it is obvious that the cost of importing oil is a heavy burden for the country s economy. This study is an attempt to contribute towards the knowledge base regarding the feasibility of producing biofuels in the Tanzania so as to reduce the country s dependence on oil imports. The results show that ethanol can be produced in the country for as low as US$ 0.276 per litre by using sugarcane as a feedstock. Moreover, the results show that ethanol produced in the country can compete with traditional fossil petrol if world oil prices would not fall below US$ 30 a barrel. Since the world oil price is well above US$ 30 a barrel, then it can be concluded that ethanol can be produced competitively in Tanzania. Moreover, the results show that the production of biodiesel would require the world oil price to be at least US$ 60 a barrel.
The production of biofuels from microalgae, especially biodiesel, has become a topic of great interest in recent years. All the steps in the process must also be very low cost. However, many of the published papers do not consider the question of scale up and the feasibility of the various processes to be operated at the very large scale required if algal biofuels are to make a meaningful contribution to renewable fuels. Recently, technological advancements have made microalgae biodiesel closer to being economically feasible through increased efficiency of the cultivation, harvesting, pre- treatment, lipid extraction, and transesterification subsystems. The metabolism of microalgae can be favourably manipulated to increase lipid productivity through environmental stressors, and ''green'' techniques such as using flue gas as a carbon source and wastewater as a media replacement. This paper discusses the unit processes required for algal biofuels production (i.e., growing the algae, and their techno-economic feasibility.
The exhaust emissions from diesel engines are increasing at a faster rate. To mitigate the challenge alternative fuels especially biodiesel is gaining importance. In general edible or non-edible oils are used for production of biodiesels. In this endeavor the main objective is to produce biodiesel from waste cooking oil which is available abundantly for low or even free of cost. In order to improve the biodiesel yield Taguchi based optimization technique is used. Total of 9 experiments were conducted and 92.17% biodiesel yield is achieved. From analysis of variance (ANOVA) the influence factor is identified and coefficient of determination is 99.59% which shows that the chosen model is highly accurate. Artificial intelligent techniques are also used to revalidate the Taguchi results.
Tanzania depends exclusively on imports for its oil requirements. The country's dependency on oil imports has made it very vulnerable to increases in world oil prices and local oil demand. For instance, due to the increase in demand and prices the value of the country's oil imports rose from US$ 400.3 million in 2003 to US$ 1.1 billion in 2005. Therefore, it is obvious that the cost of importing oil is a heavy burden for the country's economy. This study is an attempt to contribute towards the knowledge base regarding the feasibility of producing biofuels in the Tanzania so as to reduce the country's dependence on oil imports. The results show that ethanol can be produced in the country for as low as US$ 0.276 per litre by using sugarcane as a feedstock. Moreover, the results show that ethanol produced in the country can compete with traditional fossil petrol if world oil prices would not fall below US$ 30 a barrel. Since the world oil price is well above US$ 30 a barrel, then it can be concluded that ethanol can be produced competitively in Tanzania. Moreover, the results show that the production of biodiesel would require the world oil price to be at least US$ 60 a barrel.